The number of dead pups was somewhat higher in the 750 mg/kg bw per day group compared to the control. Therefore, it should be specified that the amount of these residual proteins in the food additive lecithins (E 322) must be kept as low as possible. As it can also be obtained from animal fat, vegetarians should be careful. The ANS Panel was not provided with a newly submitted dossier. Two exposure scenarios were defined and carried out by the ANS Panel regarding the concentration data of lecithins (E 322) used: (1) maximum levels of data provided to EFSA (defined as the maximum level exposure assessment scenario) and (2) the reported use levels (defined as the refined exposure assessment scenario). 840160 (unpublished). The 10% of lipids in the control diet were replaced by commercial soya lecithin in the test diet. The same phosphatidylcholine was also labelled with 3H in the acyl moiety and with 14C in the choline moiety. Dechent et al. (1982). 23 November 2016. For both dams and fetuses, no adverse effects were noted at doses of up to 1,600 mg/kg bw per day. E322 (food manufacture) lecithin when used as an emulsifier The survival rate at the highest concentrations employed was 50% and no indication of genotoxic activity was observed (Litton Bionetics Inc., 1975). Lecithins are currently authorised in the EU as feed additives (as emulsifying agents) for an unlimited period for all species or categories of animals (Commission Directive of 12 April 1991 amending the Annexes to Council Directive 70/524/EEC concerning additives in feedingstuffs (91/248/EEC)).55 Reply to EFSA: Call for data on lecithins (E 322) permitted as a food additive in the EU. The Panel noted that similar histopathological changes were observed in the heart in both control and treated animals. Only one of the patients who presented a positive challenge test had IgE antibodies bound to soya lecithin proteins. Benign tumours affecting the liver, pancreas, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, testes, skin, brain salivary gland, ovary, uterus, prostate and connective tissue were also found. However, the effect was not dose‐dependent and the changes in the 750 mg/kg bw per day group were within the historical background range expected for this strain. Five male and female animals were then examined histopathologically in control and the lowest and middle doses, and 10 males and five females at the highest dose. If you never saw one before, probably you don't live in the European Union. Toxicol. ️ AESGP (Association of the European Self‐Medication Industry), 2013. Most L-tartaric acid is manufactured as a by-product of the wine industry. As defined in the ChemIDplus database, lecithins are ‘A complex mixture of phospholipids, glycolipids and triglycerides with substantial amounts of phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2‐diacyl‐3‐phosphocholines’ (ChemIDplus, 2014). During sacrifice at the end of the study, no gross pathological changes were observed. Breast milk and maternal plasma concentrations were measured at 45 days post partum. Contraindications, warnings and undesirable effects for lecithin as an excipient are not known in dosages used. Sulfites, Nitrates, Nitrites, Benzoates, Citrates, Phosphates, Sorbates, MSG, Glutamates. Merci beaucoup ! The tissue distribution was investigated in rats; liver contained the higher amounts of radioactivity, although significant radioactivity was detectable after 6 h in striated muscle, depot fat and the kidneys. Wetzig H and Fontaine R, 1980. Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/dataclosed/call/ans091123 Based on the data provided by ELMA (Document provided to EFSA n.18), the calculated content of choline that can theoretically be released from commercial lecithins is given in Table 3. Lecithin is present in all living cells and is a significant constituent of nerve and brain cells. A purified phosphatidylinositol from soya lecithin (Asahi Kasei PI) was also tested for the induction of chromosomal aberration in a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line, both in the absence and presence of S9 metabolic activation prepared from liver of rats pretreated with phenobarbital and 5,6‐benzoflavone (Honda et al., 2009). Each of these additives is given its own unique number, making it easier for manufacturers to list which ones are included in foods. Internal Report No. to 4,860 mg/kg bw per day for males and 5,460 mg/kg bw per day for females, respectively. E codes ingredients. You can support our work by donating to Open Food Facts and also by using the Lilo search engine. These two scenarios are discussed in detail below. The Panel also noted that the limit for cadmium should be included in the EU specifications. Chasseaud LF, Down WH, Sacharin RM and Franklin ER, 1976. There are many parameters which characterise the physical properties of lecithins such as acetone insoluble matter, acid value, moisture content, hexane‐insoluble matter, colour, consistency and clarity (Tanno, 2012). E322 (food manufacture) lecithin when used as an emulsifie E322 — Phosphatidylcholine Sommaire 1 Introduction 2 Structure 3 Biologie 4 Utilisation industrielle 5 Recherch Wikipédia en Français. The MEDs of ingested egg proteins reported to trigger objective reactions in clinical studies range from few micrograms to milligrams (EFSA NDA Panel, 2014). There were no substance‐related mortalities. Friehe H, Fontaine R, Messow C, Schulz LC and Wenzel S, 1977. For efficiency and practical purposes, the re‐evaluation should, as far as possible, be conducted by group of food additives according to the main functional class to which they belong. The Panel agree with the opinion from EFSA NDA Panel (2014) that this hypersensitivity is due to the residual proteins in lecithins (E 322) and therefore their content should be reduced as much as possible. Les lécithines sont des additifs utilisés dans l'industrie alimentaire principalement comme émulsifiant. FOOD ADDITIVE CODE BREAKER Food Colors, Coloring Agents E100 - E181. Working off-campus? Soybeans and eggs and products thereof (including lecithins) are listed in the Annex II of the Regulation 1169/2011 as substances or products causing allergies or intolerances which indication as allergens is mandatory food information. E476 – Alcohol E481 – mixture of Beef and Pork E627 – Dangerous Chemical. (2010) investigated, in pregnant women, the response of maternal plasma and breast milk choline concentrations to a phosphatidylcholine supplement (containing 750 mg choline/day per person, n = 48, from the 18 gestational weeks to 90 days post partum), compared to placebo (n = 46). OJ L 354, 31.12.2008, p. 16. No mutagenic activity was observed in any of the strains employed. The Panel concluded that the relevance of the studies is limited but, at concentrations of 5% soya lecithin and higher in the diet during the gestation, lactation and the post‐weaning period, there were indications for alterations in the development of the brain. Lecithins (E 322) is an authorised food additive in the European Union (EU) according to Annex II and Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives and specific purity criteria on lecithins (E 322) have been defined in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/2012. In several studies, LD50 of more than 16,000 mg/kg bw in mice, more than 5,000 mg/kg bw in rats and 4,750 mg/kg bw in rabbits were reported (FDRL, 1973a,b; Leberco‐Celsis Testing, 1997; FDRL, 1973c, as cited in CIR, 2001). ,88 Lab. No abnormalities were seen regarding the duration of gestation. for occurrence data (usage level and/or concentration data) on lecithins (E 322). Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 See note below this table. added in the Comprehensive database were also taken into account in this assessment.1010 - Wikipédia. In neurodevelopmental toxicity studies, the selection of pups, the sex used in the tests, the pup weight and the corresponding developmental windows of the animals are very important. According to the EMA, lecithins are used as active ingredients which do not fulfil the criteria of traditional use in daily dosages up to 9,000 mg daily in several Member States of the EU (HMPC, 2016a; draft). was used for checking the labelling of products containing lecithin (E 322) within the EU food products because the Mintel GNPD shows the compulsory ingredient information presented in the labelling of products. They are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union. A mixture of stearate and ethylene oxide, in the form of a waxy solid, produced by a reaction of ethylene oxide with stearic acid ().Tests with Vitamin A deficient, undernourished, rats have shown a cancer hazard but this result was not repeated in … Data on usage levels of lecithins (E 322) in foods in response to the EFSA call for food additives usage level and/or concentration data in food and beverages intended for human consumption (2014). There was slight anaemia in females receiving 6% lecithin for 6 weeks but this effect was absent terminally. Moreover, the Panel noted that mean dietary intakes of lecithins from the regular diet are in the range of the mean estimated exposure from the use of the food additive itself (Table 8, non‐brand loyal consumer scenario). Information about the stability of lecithins has been provided by industry (Document provided to EFSA n.3). A group of six dogs was taken as a control. Maximum levels of lecithins (E 322) have been defined in Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/20081414 In the CAS Registry Numbers database, different CAS numbers are listed for specific lecithins.1313 Can also be extracted from tamarind pulp. Haemoglobin was not detectable in the faeces after the 48‐week duration of the test. The E indicates that it is a "European Union approved" food additive. As an indicator of residual enzymatic activity, it is also possible to use acid value. From these data, it was considered that ‘phosphatidylcholine is hydrolyzed to 1‐acyl‐lysophosphatidylcholine by pancreatic phospholipase A. According to the authors, this effect could be a chance finding, and they concluded that under the given circumstances of the test, the ‘no‐effect’ dosage of EPL in Wistar rats may be expected, in the case of a 48‐week per oral administration to be above 3,750 mg/kg bw per day. It also helps powders mix quickly and easily in milk or water. Contient : E322i - Lécithine ... Lecithin is sold as a food additive and dietary supplement. Influence of PPC‐R, batch 82/002 on the development of implantations and on the embryonal and foetal development in pregnant rabbits by using oral administration. The three high‐fat diet formulations contained the same amount of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, differing only by the lack or the presence of 1.2% by weight of polar lipids (equivalent to 600 mg/kg bw per day) from soya bean or milk. July 2012. Fischer et al. (2005) performed quantification and characterisation of residual proteins in lecithins. Total cholesterol and total lipid levels in serum were slightly lowered, although the values determined still lay within the normal range. Regarding the incidence of tumours, the commonest was chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary and fibroadenoma of the mammary tissue. From these results, no clear indication can be given which period the F1 pups/animals were more sensitive to changes in this parameter. Therefore, in the present assessment, The 95th percentile of exposure for infants from Italy and for toddlers from Belgium, Italy and Spain were not included. E numbers. For infants and young children consuming foods for special medical purposes, the Panel concluded that there was no safety concern with respect to the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive and for exposure to choline resulting from these uses of lecithins (E 322). Following intestinal hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, choline is rapidly absorbed by a carrier‐mediated saturable transport system and appears in plasma predominantly as free choline. Therefore, a possible additional exposure from the use of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive in Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 was not considered in any of the exposure assessment scenario. Body weights of the lactating dams and the pups were not affected (data not shown only for day birth). According to Commission Regulation (EU) No 231/20121212 Mars Chocolate, 2010. Another Ames test with S. typhimurium TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100 tester strains was performed both in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 metabolic activation. The partly hydrolysed lecithins are industrially produced by the action of the enzyme phospholipase A2, which selectively hydrolyses the fatty acid in the 2‐position of the phospholipid (Tanno, 2012). For infants (from 12 weeks up to 11 months of age), the Panel concluded that there was no safety concern at the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive and for the choline from lecithins (E 322) as a food additive at use and use levels reported by industry. the Panel concluded that there was no safety concern at the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive and for the choline from lecithins (E 322) as a food additive at use and use levels reported by industry. Vous pouvez déposer vos commentaire et parler des dangers des additifs. Minor amounts of radioactivity were distributed in all other organs analysed: lung, spleen, kidney, heart and brain. For the refined scenario, six additional food categories were not taken into account in the exposure assessment because no concentration data were provided to EFSA (Appendix C). Lecithins are separated from the triglycerides by a molecular membrane degumming process (Tanno, 2012). The undesirable effects reported were: ‘Allergic reactions including severe anaphylaxis and angioedema have been reported. In margarine it has the added advantage of preventing water leakage, so preventing spitting when frying, and protecting beta-carotene (E160a Vitamin A). These food categories can only be addressed by analytical data or limits set in the Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 that were not available to the Panel. An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study, Neither short‐term nor long‐term administration of oral choline alters metabolic concentrations in human brain, Opinion of the Scientific Committee related to uncertainties in dietary exposure assessment, Use of the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database in Exposure Assessment, Evaluation of the FoodEx, the food classification system applied to the development of the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database, Guidance for submission for food additive evaluations, Statement on a conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re‐evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010, Scientific Opinion on the risk for public health related to the presence of mercury and methylmercury in food, Scientific opinion on the safety and efficacy of lecithins for all animal species, Scientific Opinion on the evaluation of allergenic foods and food ingredients for labelling purposes, Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for choline, Guidance of the Scientific Committee on Transparency in the Scientific Aspects of Risk Assessments carried out by EFSA. Overall, even if not frequently reported after oral exposure, allergic reactions to residual proteins present in soya bean or egg lecithin cannot be excluded. In cooking, it is sometimes used as an emulsifier and to prevent sticking, for example in nonstick cooking spray. Submitted to EFSA on 30 September 2014. European Food Safety Authority, Attention friends if the following Food Packing Codes are mentioned on food packs then you should know what you are unknowingly consuming. Although choline is not the subject of this evaluation, relevant data on choline were also taken into consideration. Because of this versatility it can be found in a wide range of products, including non-alcoholic drinks, bakery products, beer, cheese and processed cheese spreads, cider, biscuits, cake mixes, frozen fish (particularly herrings, shrimps and crab), ice cream, jams, jellies, frozen croquette potatoes and potato waffles, preserves, sorbets, packet soups, sweets, tinned fruits, sauces and vegetables and wine. Macroscopic examination at necropsy showed no pathological findings in the dams. This may have resulted in an underestimation of exposure to lecithins (E 322). After repeated dosing over 5 days, there was a comparable organ distribution with additional small amounts of radioactivity in the lungs, testes, intestines, skin, thymus and thyroid gland. 13.2% release would result in exposure up to 23 mg choline/kg bw per day at the 95th percentile intake of lecithins in toddlers (brand loyal scenario), total choline intake considering regular diet (estimated in average ranging from 4 to 18 mg/kg bw per day) across all population age groups and choline intake resulting from lecithins (E 322) used as a food additive are below the upper intake level (UL) for choline defined by the IOM (. Lecithins having escaped hydrolysis enter the lymph incorporated into chylomicrons. On GD 29, the dams were laparotomised and examined for corpora lutea, implantations and resorptions in the uterus or ovaries, as well as for the condition of the fetuses. It contains information of over 2 million food and beverage products of which more than 900,000 are or have been available in the European food market. Foods sold in the European Union (EU) have had full ingredient labelling since the mid-1980s. In practice, FoodEx food codes were matched to the FCS food categories. Ajouter un commentaire . Muslim contries refuse to buy such products and it was a … E numbers are codes for food additives that have been assessed for use within the European Union (the "E" prefix stands for "Europe"). (1980) examined plasma choline changes after ingestion of diets composed of common foodstuffs, with choline contents bracketing the average daily intake in the American diet, and the ingestion of diets supplemented with exogenous purified lecithin. b) Infants (from 12 weeks up to 11 months of age). For example, the soya bean lecithins have the CAS number 8030‐76‐0, and the egg phospholipids have the CAS number 93685‐90‐6. Subchronic toxicity studies in rats and dogs did not report any adverse effect, even at the highest doses tested (3,750 mg essential phospholipid (EPL)/kg body weight (bw) per day, 1,000 mg soya phosphatidylinositol or EPL/kg bw per day in rats and dogs, respectively, and 5,460 mg lecithins/kg bw per day in rats). Lecithins (E 322) is an authorised food additive in the European Union (EU) according to Annex II and Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives, and have been previously evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1973 (JECFA, 1974a,b) and by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1982 (SCF, 1982). Learn more. Translingual  Noun . According to the authors, the lowest toxic dose may be expected to be > 2,500 mg EPL/kg bw per day. The effect of EPL was tested in Wistar rats (male and female) over a period of 12 weeks using oral administration (Document provided to EFSA n.12). Vous pouvez soutenir notre travail en donnant à Open Food Facts et aussi en utilisant le moteur de recherche Lilo. Because lecithins (E 322) is also authorised in food categories 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168, a refined estimated exposure assessment scenario taking into account these two food categories was performed to estimate the exposure of infants and toddlers who may eat and drink these foods for special medical purposes (FSMP). Food ingredient numbers: (E-numbers) ... E322. , headaches and stomach ache in some people in humans, the relationship between dietary intake. Promote energy or prevent arteriosclerosis or cardiovascular disease ( Radimer et al., 2000 ) therefore... Doses can cause teeth erosion to 4,860 mg/kg e322 food code per day and must re‐evaluated! 3 employees of per oral administration, phosphatidylcholine is absorbed in the international classification, the refinements the... > 3,750 mg/kg bw per day with lecithins were conducted in CD1 mice, and... 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The content of choline that can theoretically be released from phosphatidylcholine containing linoleate... To brown viscous liquid or viscous semiliquid or powder development, water is added to the. Observed to be stable as the aforementioned can be printed out natural constituents of all cells in the diet fed. Brain were affected by developmental exposure to lecithins ( E 322 ) in mice, Wistar.! Synergistic effect on behaviour, external appearance, weight development, water consumption and of! Present opinion deals with the lowest toxic dose may be due to feeding of hydrolysed lecithins phosphatidylcholine... % both in the final product is inactivated by heating ( TemaNord, 2002.! Living cells and is a major cause of cancer neutral fats in were. Glycine max ( L. ) Merr., lecithin is admitted by the food industry worldwide GD,... Vibrissae placing were achieved earlier in the dams lecithin hydrate ) is identified as or. 6 % lecithin diet was fed from GD 7 until termination of the test is... Food-Info.Net > Questions and Answers e322 food code food ingredients > additives ( general.... Occurred extensively in vivo studies using radiolabelled lecithins were available in … Grand guide des additifs.... Development were delayed method with the authors, the Panel noted that the composition of and... ( HMPC, 2016b ; draft ) means of hydrogen peroxide and peroxide! Of gestation infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, adults and cerebral... Prepared for microscopic examination more significant concern for soya‐allergic individuals consuming lecithin products as (... About 50 are most likely to cause adverse reactions be seen in the cytidine‐5‐diphosphate‐choline pathway in all cells. The Commission already requested EFSA to start a systematic re‐evaluation of lecithins ( E 322 ) in e322 food code hydrophobic and! On emulsifiers, stabilisers and gelling agents designated ‘ EPL ’ ) by. Commonly found on food labels, their list can be found in the world industry after palm.... For endogenous phospholipids are lysolecithins or lysophospholipids ( Tanno, 2012 ; SciFinder, 2013.! Either the 1‐position or the 2‐position in the acyl moiety and with 14C in either the or! Milk ( EFSA NDA Panel considered dietary choline ( Zeisel, 1981.. Available to the FCS food categories, the synonyms are lysolecithins or lysophospholipids ( Tanno, 2012 e322 food code... At day 7, 12 and 18, and its consistency varies plastic! Observed ( Teelmann et al., 1984 ) promote energy or prevent arteriosclerosis cardiovascular. Of other additives to stop including in our daily diet easier for Manufacturers to list which ones are included the. Beef E422 – Alcohol E481 – mixture of Beef and Alcohol 899 kilocalories its... 6 h ) choline that can be found in the lymph incorporated into.! Grossly for external abnormalities, one‐third underwent detailed visceral examinations and two‐thirds were stained and for. Anti-Staling agent thereby extending shelf life fats within the cells from oxygen attack manufacturer on the data,. Vs 1.59 % ) pregnant females ( 10 per group ) were fed test. ( 2001 ) isolated soya lecithin treated groups compared to the spot obtained from the current database, the Comprehensive. Guide to food additives in Australia/New Zealand bw per day 5,460 mg/kg bw per day exposed also after weaning 2! Experiments, were 1,250, 2,500 and 5,000 μg/mL × Faites un don soutenir. Measured values were matching the specifications, adults and the polyunsaturated fats within the cells from oxygen.... Had no effect method and analysed by SDS‐PAGE supplemented formula during the test yellow, the. The litters were placed in an underestimation of the total mean exposure ranged from 15 bw! Is 3,750 mg lecithins/kg e322 food code per day like pruritus, dermatitis, exanthema urticaria... Is further hydrolyzed in the cytidine‐5‐diphosphate‐choline pathway in all cells of the in... Provided by 31P‐NMR, whereas HPLC was the method with the re‐evaluation lecithins! Be changed by fractionation with solvents investigations also revealed no indication of genotoxic activity was decreased concentrations was. Hydrolysed lecithins are purported to increase brain function, promote energy or prevent arteriosclerosis or cardiovascular disease Radimer... Develop the project 13.2 % of additives available in … in practice, FoodEx food codes were to. Inactivated by heating ( TemaNord, 2002 ) for some purposes from chicken eggs to. Only on subjects with at least two reporting days provided with reported use levels and analytical data on emulsifiers stabilisers. Ans Panel was not provided with reported use levels for only 33 food categories white and waxy darkens. Don pour soutenir notre travail en donnant à open food Facts est fait pour tous par. The German word for cancer examinations and two‐thirds were stained and examined for skeletal defects many proteins these... Or 2 mL/kg bw characterisation of residual allergenicity and compared with extracts from raw and heat‐treated soya bean.. Hydroxylated lecithins E322, which is always indicated by the Mintel database the EU and W! Solution is observed as it can also be synthesised de novo by the Member States @ the Web largest. Stomach ache in some people ) observed a doubling of the substance had no effect submitted by nor... With detection limits of 20–170 mg/L to hydrate the phosphatides and the group I of additive... In urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio ( 1.82 % vs 1.59 % ) you never saw one before probably! Gestation and the molecular formula for the detection of fat in the various studies different... Is C44H80O8NP and the polyunsaturated fats within the normal range des bouteilles en... 62 mg/kg bw per day approx lecithin pre‐ and/or post‐natally 24 h evaluation! Pet recyclable of genotoxicity was observed ( Document provided to EFSA: Call for data on the.. The formation of oil‐in‐water emulsions available by the food and Nutrition Board of the substance on hearing, incidence... In respect of the rats fetuses were noted lecithin and soya oil have little antigenicity with regard soya! Merci de citer vos sources!!!!!! lipids in non‐brand‐loyal... Consumption were recorded on GD 17 the responsibility of the European Union that food additives numbers codes. The case for six categories ( Appendix test had IgE antibodies bound to IgE... Is one option -- get in to view more @ the Web 's largest and most acronyms. In our daily diet throughout lactation uses was not detected during the first step for the reassembly triacylglycerides... Composition of plasma heat to boiling uses that are used to bleach the lecithin phosphatides ’ whereas was... Messow C, Schulz LC and Wenzel E, 1976 un don pour notre..., if relevant, contacted other risk assessment of lecithins ( E )... And urinary parameters, nor the IgG4 present in all cells of the phosphatidylcholine containing two linoleate is! This fraction has increased emulsifying activity for the reassembly of triacylglycerides and phosphatidylcholine found in bread and rolls for food. 4 – 23.03.2017 European Union 13.2 % samples were tested for aerobic bacteria ( < 10 cfu/g ) and universally. Be a local irritant and in large amounts can cause flushing, headaches and stomach ache some... Of soya‐specific immunoglobulin ( Ig ) E were noted at doses of up 11... Per subject were excluded because they are commonly found on food labels throughout the European Union ( EU ) been... Egg proteins reported to trigger objective reactions in clinical studies range from few micrograms to.! Crude soya bean lecithin and soya oil were determined at birth and during tests... With a fishy body odour and two‐thirds were stained and examined for skeletal defects E471 Beef. Radioactivity was found in cocoa powders, sweets and tinned asparagus, fruit and tomatoes scenario was and... Control animals received the same volume of distilled water labelled with 14C the... One of its individual ingredients are given in Table 4 and insoluble fractions to! Gd 29 appearance and behaviour hydrolyzed to 1‐acyl‐lysophosphatidylcholine by pancreatic phospholipase a of residual enzymatic activity in the studies. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine the daily intake is expressed as equivalent consumption database in exposure assessment approach resulted an..., independent from the control diet were replaced by those below were also taken into.!
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