pope innocent viii death

Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. In 1232, Pope Innocent VIII declared cats diabolical, associated with the Devil. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. Rats were the ones that spread the bubonic plague aka black death. When Innocent VIII lay dying, his doctors decided that they would try a blood transfusion. He is known in Budapest as the "Saviour of Hungary". Roman Catholic Pope, 1676-89. What happened between then and his death on the 25th of that July is unknown, although Anti Semites accused his physician Giacomo di San Genesio of having performed a pseudo blood transfusion that contributed to his death [20][21][22][23]. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. Pope Innocent XIII (Latin: Innocentius Tertius Decimus; 13 May 1655 – 7 March 1724), born Michelangelo Conti, was an Italian cleric of the Roman Catholic Church and the 245th Pope from 1721 until his death.. Michelangelo Conti was born in Poli, near Rome.. Conti was born into a family that which included several popes including Pope Innocent III. While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. His daughter Teodorina Cybo married Gerardo Usodimare and had a daughter. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. After intense politicking by Della Rovere, Cibo was elected pope in 1484. The secular power can without mortal sin carry out a sentence of death, provided it proceeds in imposing the penalty not from hatred but with judgment, not carelessly but with due solicitude. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses. Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. Yale University Press. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. Darst, David H. (15 October 1979). The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. The day after Pope Celestine III died, Innocent became one of the youngest men ever selected to sit in Peter's Chair. After the death of Pope Innocent VIII in 1492, Alexander VI became the next pope and Giuliano della Rovere removed to France for his safety. The 1492 papal conclave (6–11 August) was convened after the death of Pope Innocent VIII (25 July 1492). Innocent died on 27 September 1700 and was succeeded by Pope Clement XI (1700–1721). On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. Pope Innocent III Was Known For Calling the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade, approving the works of Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assisi, and convoking the Fourth Lateran Council. Very few, if any, cats were around for 400 years. The fact is that he died seven days before the departure of Christopher Columbus for his supposedly first voyage over the Atlantic, raising speculations that Columbus actually traveled before the known date and re-discovered the Americas for the Europeans before the supposed date of 12 October 1492. His rule was contested by his brother Cem, who sought the support of the Mamluks of Egypt. Without cats, the rat population flourished. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. However, the sultan paid the Knights a large amount to keep Cem captive. Pope Innocent VIII : biography 1432 – 25 July 1492 In Rome he built for summer use the Belvedere of the Vatican, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace, which his successor would turn into the Cortile del Belvedere. Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски. ), of an old Genoese family. It was the first papal conclave to be held in the Sistine Chapel. Innocent XI, given name Benedetto Odescalchi, Roman Catholic Pope from 1676 to 1689, was born at Como on the 16th of May 1611. Saints & Sinners – A History of the Popes. Prince Cem offered perpetual peace between the Ottoman Empire and Christendom. Some scholars view the bull as "clearly political", motivated by jurisdictional disputes between the local German Catholic priests and clerics from the Office of the Inquisition who answered more directly to the pope. He was the son of the Roman senator, Aran Cibò, and Teodorina de' Mari. The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. That was it for cats. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. Defeated by his brother's armies, Cem sought protection from the Knights of St. John in Rhodes. In order to prevent the election of the Venetian Cardinal Barbo, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, on the evening before the election, after the cardinals had retired for the night, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, nephew of the late Pope, and Cardinal Borgia, the Vice-Chancellor, visited a number of cardinals and secured their votes with the promise of various benefices. One of the most influential pontiffs of the Middle Ages, Innocent built the papacy into a more powerful, prestigious institution than it had ever been before. Boniface VIII, original name Benedetto Caetani, (born c. 1235—died October 11, 1303, Rome [Italy]), pope from 1294 to 1303, the extent of whose authority was vigorously challenged by the emergent powerful monarchs of western Europe, especially Philip IV of France. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. The pope named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena (1484) and Leopold III (1485). His tomb at St. Peter's Basilica was sculpted by Filippo della Valle. Innocent VIII, Pope Innocent VIII, Pope (1432–1492; r. 1484–1492) Giovanni Batista Cibo, elected pope in 1484, issued what has been termed one of the most important documents in the history of the Church’s fight against witchcraft: the Bull of 1484, Summis desiderantes affectibus (“Desiring with supreme ardor”). Innocent VIII, original name Giovanni Battista Cibo, (born 1432, Genoa—died July 25/26, 1492, Rome), pope from 1484 to 1492. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". Wikimedia Commons Innocent VII, who became pope in 1484, was the first pontiff to openly acknowledge eight illegitimate children, though he … 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. Alberto de' Capitanei, archdeacon of Cremona, responded to the bull by organizing a crusade to fulfill its order and launched an offensive in the provinces of Dauphiné and Piedmont. In memory of Innocent III, to whose lineage he belonged, he chose the name of Innocent XIII. Cats are the #1 rat predators. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. Constantly confronted with a depleted treasury, he resorted to the objectionable expedient of creating new offices and granting them to the highest bidders. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. After being moved the first time in 1606 to the so-called aisle of the Sudarium, the monument to Pope Innocent VIII was placed in its current location in 1621, and arbitrarily recomposed. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. After Innocent XI in 1689, he was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. Pope Innocent VIII(Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo(or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Churchand ruler of the Papal Statesfrom 29 August 1484 to his death. [6], The papal conclave of 1484 was rife with factions, while gangs rioted in the streets. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. On the death of Pope Innocent VIII on 25 July 1492, the three likely candidates for the Papacy were the sixty-one-year-old Borgia, seen as an independent candidate, Ascanio Sforza for the Milanese, and Giuliano della Rovere, seen as a pro-French candidate. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. In 1650, he was made Bishop of Novara. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).[12]. Innocent VIII named eight cardinals in one consistory which was held on 9 March 1489; the pope named three of those cardinals in pectore (one of whom being a successor in Giovanni de' Medici who became Pope Leo X) with two of them having their names released after the pope died to ensure that they could vote in the 1492 conclave. The Italian journalist and writer Ruggero Marino, in his book Cristoforo Colombo e il Papa tradito (transl. He was quickly ordained as a priest and the next day consecrated Innocent III. He is to date the last pope to take the pontifical name of "Alexander" upon his election to the papacy. His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo. The process of canonization was begun in 1714 and suspended in 1744. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. They were executed in large numbers. 1432 – 25 July 1492 Pope Innocent VIII (; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was the head of the Catholic Church from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. Pope Innocent VIII Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. After the death of Urban, Innocent X made him Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Cosma in 1645, and, and then Cardinal-Priest of Sant' Onofrio. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. A protracted conflict with King Ferdinand I of Naples was the principal obstacle. [24], Innocent had two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy[6] "towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless". Cem's presence in Rome was useful because whenever Bayezid intended to launch a military campaign against the Christian nations of the Balkans, the Pope would threaten to release his brother. Executive summary:Roman Catholic Pope, 1484-92 Innocent VIII, given name Giovanni Battista Cibo, Roman Catholic Pope from the 29th of August 1484 to the 25th of July 1492, successor of Pope Sixtus IV, was born at Genoa (1432), the son of Arano Cibo, who under Calixtus III had been a senator of Rome. It is also worth mentioning that Innocent VIII battled with unsuccessful insistence to promote a great crusade. (Innocent III, DS 795/425) Pope Paul III, 1534-1549. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Shortly after his coronation, Innocent VIII addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the Turks. Pope Innocent III in 1210. Pope Innocent VIII (1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. About Pope Innocent VIII Born at Genoa, 1432; elected 29 August, 1484; died at Rome, 25 July, 1492. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'. Both the papal letter appended to the work and the supposed endorsement of Cologne University for it are problematic. A mysterious inscription on his tomb in Saint Peter in Rome states: “Nel tempo del suo Pontificato, la gloria della scoperta di un nuovo mondo” (transl. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. Pope … [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. His new Crusade had not been launched, the church was still struggling with heresy, and the young emperor-elect, Frederick II, was a growing concern. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. The pope named two saints during his pontificate: Catherine of Vadstena (1484) and Leopold III (1485). [5] After the death of King Alfonso (1458), friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa induced him to resign his canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education. For more information follow the bold category link. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. for his worldly ambitions.[26]. The noted Franciscan theologian Angelo Carletti di Chivasso, whom Innocent in 1491 appointed as Apostolic Nuncio and Commissary, conjointly with the Bishop of Mauriana, was involved in reaching the peaceful agreement between Catholics and Waldensians. After the death of Clement XI he was elected pope in a stormy conclave on 8 May, 1721. Pope Paul III excommunicated Henry VIII in 1538, and opened the Council of Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. This page is based on the Wikipedia article. for his worldly ambitions.[26]. ), of an old Genoese family. [16] In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity. He had a … [16] In the case of Innocent he permitted trade with Barbary merchants in which foodstuffs would be given in exchange for slaves who could then be converted to Christianity. [6] The fall of Granada in January 1492, was celebrated in the Vatican and Innocent granted Ferdinand II of Aragon the epithet "Catholic Majesty. Duffy, Eamon (2006). Witchcraft in Europe, 400–1700: A Documentary History. [5] After the death of King Alfonso (1458), friction between Giovanni Battista and the Archbishop of Genoa induced him to resign his canonry, and to go to Padua and then to Rome for his education. To Valori, he had become 'an inert mass of flesh, incapable of assimiliating any nourishment but a few drops of milk from a young woman's breast'.[19]. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was Pope from 29 August 1484 to his death in 1492. King Ferdinand I of Naples had supported Cybo's competitor, Rodrigo Borgia. The immediate conflict was not ended until 1494, after Innocent VIII's death. Pope Alexander VIII (22 April 1610 – 1 February 1691), born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 6 October 1689 to his death in 1691. In March 1489, Cem was transferred to the custody of Innocent VIII. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. Savonarola chastised him[who?] His grandnephew was Bindo Altoviti, one of the most influential bankers of his time and patron of the arts, being friends with Raphael and Michelangelo. 13. In 1473, with the support of Giuliano Della Rovere, later Pope Julius II, he was made cardinal by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded on 29 August 1484 as Pope Innocent VIII. Pope Innocent XI raised Pignatelli to the rank of Cardinal in 1682. Charles I, Duke of Savoy eventually interfered to save his territories from further confusion and promised the Vaudois peace, but not before the offensive had devastated the area and many of the Vaudois fled to Provence and south to Italy. Innocent VIII had lots of illegitimate children. In exchange for maintaining the custody of Cem, Bayezid paid Innocent VIII 120,000 crowns, a relic of the Holy Lance and an annual fee of 45,000 ducats. In a fairly unimpressive papacy, the elderly pope became the first pontiff to publicly announce that he fathered illegitimate children. Pope Innocent XI. [15], In Rome, he ordered the Belvedere of the Vatican to be built, intended for summer use, on an unarticulated slope above the Vatican Palace. Ferdinand's oppressive government led in 1485 to a rebellion of the aristocracy, known as the Conspiracy of the Barons, which included Francesco Coppola and Antonello Sanseverino of Salerno and was supported by Pope Innocent VIII. In March 1489, Cem, the captive brother of Bayezid II, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, came into Innocent's custody. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. Pope Innocent VIII (Latin: Innocentius VIII; 1432 – 25 July 1492), born Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 29 August 1484 to his death. Innocent VIII died on 25 July 1492 leaving behind him two illegitimate children born before he entered the clergy “towards whom his nepotism had been as lavish as it was shameless” In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de’ Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de’ Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal’s hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. [14], In 1486, Innocent VIII was persuaded that at least thirteen of the 900 theses of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola were heretical, and the book containing the theses was interdicted. ", Minnich (2005) notes that the attitude of Renaissance popes towards slavery, a common institution in contemporary cultures, varied. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). Giovanni Battista Cybo (or Cibo) was born in Genoa of Greek ancestry,[1][2][3][4] the son of Arano Cybo or Cibo (c. 1375–c. [17] The slaves of Innocent were called "moro", meaning "dark-skinned man", in contrast to negro slaves who were called "moro nero".[18]. In 1487, Innocent confirmed Tomas de Torquemada as Grand Inquisitor of Spain. Savonarola chastised him[who?] "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martín de Castañega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)". After his death. Gender: Male Re. Viewing his brother as a rival, the Sultan paid the pope not to set him free. Also in 1487, Innocent issued a bull[13] denouncing the views of the Waldensians (Vaudois), offering plenary indulgence to all who should engage in a Crusade against them. By July 1492, Innocent had become very skinny. Using his influence to provide for […] While in Naples he was appointed a Canon of the Cathedral of Capua, and was given the Priory of S. Maria d'Arba in Genoa. Giovanni Battista's early years were spent at the Neapolitan court. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. Son of the viceroy of Naples, Battista spent his early years at the Neapolitan court. But Innocent left a rich legacy. Bayezid II ruled as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512. [16], King Ferdinand of Aragon gave Innocent 100 Moorish slaves, who were shared out with favoured Cardinals. Innocent excommunicated Ferdinand in 1489 and invited King Charles VIII of France to come to Italy with an army and take possession of the Kingdom of Naples, a disastrous political event for the Italian peninsula as a whole. "During his Pontificate, the glory of the discovery of a new world."). cf., Joyy et al., Witchcraft and Magic In Europe, p. 239 (2002). The pope is regarded as the successor of St. Peter and has supreme power of jurisdiction over the Catholic church in matters of faith and morals, as well as in church discipline and government. The following year, Pope Innocent supported the barons in their failed revolt. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. Arano Cybo was viceroy of Naples and then a senator in Rome under Pope Calixtus III (1455–58). [8] Cem died in Capua on 25 February 1495 on a military expedition under the command of King Charles VIII of France to conquer Naples. [25] In 1487 he married his elder son Franceschetto Cybo (d. 1519) to Maddalena de' Medici (1473–1528), the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, who in return obtained the cardinal's hat for his thirteen-year-old son Giovanni, later Pope Leo X. In Rome he became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55). Kramer would later claim that witchcraft was to blame for bad weather. 1380–? Sultan Bayezid sent a messenger to France and requested Cem to be kept there; he agreed to make an annual payment in gold for his brother's expenses. Innocent VIII Was the First Pope to Acknowledge His Illegitimate Children Openly Cardinal Giovanni Cibo lived a worldly life before the curia elected him Innocent VIII in 1484. Christopher Columbus and the betrayed Pope) is convinced of this after having studied Columbus's papers for over 25 years. He then developed a fever. 1455) and his wife Teodorina de Mari (c. [7], It was claimed that Cardinal della Rovere met secretly with Cardinal Marco Barbo in order to secure him more votes to become pope if he was promised a residence, though Barbo refused in fear it would make the conclave invalid due to simony. Cardinal della Rovere then met with Borgia, who disliked Barbo and wished to block his election, with an offer to turn their votes over to Cibò, promising them benefits for doing so.[7]. The letter of Innocent VIII is not an approval of the book to which it was appended, but rather a charge to inquisitors to investigate diabolical sorcery and a warning to those who might impede them in their duty, that is, a papal letter in the by then conventional tradition established by John XXII and other popes through Eugenius IV and Nicholas V (1447–55).[12]. On the request of German inquisitor Heinrich Kramer, Innocent VIII issued the papal bull Summis desiderantes (5 December 1484), which supported Kramer's investigations against magicians and witches: The bull was written in response to the request of Dominican Heinrich Kramer for explicit authority to prosecute witchcraft in Germany, after he was refused assistance by the local ecclesiastical authorities,[10] who disputed his authority to work in their dioceses. Cem was later sent to the castle of Pierre d'Aubusson in France. Any time the Sultan threatened war against the Christian Balkans, Innocent threatened to release this brother, who later died in a military expedition, fighting for King Charles VIII of France against Naples. His death, however, prevented the realisation of Innocent IX's schemes. In 1467, he was made Bishop of Savona by Pope Paul II, but exchanged this see in 1472 for that of Molfetta in south-eastern Italy. Pope. Mindful of the origin of his success, Innocent IX supported, during his two months' pontificate, the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV of France (r. 1589–1610) in the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598), where a papal army was in the field. Cardinal Rodrigo Borja was elected unanimously on the fourth ballot as Pope Alexander VI. Minnich states that those who allowed the slave trade did so in the hope of gaining converts to Christianity. His successor would later turn the building into the Cortile del Belvedere. He became a priest in the retinue of Cardinal Calandrini, half-brother to Pope Nicholas V (1447–55), Bishop of Savona under Pope Paul II, and with the support of Cardinal Giuliano Della Rovere. In season, he hunted at Castello della Magliana, which he enlarged. The pope died in Perugia less than a year after the council ended. In 1692, Innocent XII issued the papal bull Romanum decet Pontificem which banned the curial office of the cardinal-nephew. 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